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Clinical Presentation of Retinoblastoma in Children Seen in a Tertiary Hospital in Calabar, Nigeria.

 

R. Duke1, M. kooffreh2 and R. Peter 2

1University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, Department of Ophthalmology, Calabar, Cross River State.

2 University of Calabar, Faculty of Science, Department of Genetics and Biotechnology.

 

Abstract: The pattern of presentation of retinoblastoma is influenced by multiple factors including time, poverty and genetics. This study seeks to determine the pattern of presentation of Retinoblastoma, the prevalence rate and also to evaluate the bilateral and unilateral presentation among children seen in a tertiary institution in Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria. Children diagnosed with clinical retinoblastoma, who attended the ophthalmology clinic between January 2007 and March 2012 were studied; case files of patients were identified and information extracted into a questionnaire. Out of 1314 new children seen, a total of 58 had retinoblastoma, of whom 33% were male and 67% were female. The prevalence of retinoblastoma was 4.4%. Bilaterality was seen in 16 (28%) children, while 42 (72%) had unilateral disease with a statistical significant difference between gender (P<0.05). The most common clinical presentations was leukocoria 29 (39%) followed by strabismus in 19 (26%), with buphthalmos 4 (5%) being the least. The demography and clinical presentation of Retinoblastoma in children in our environment appears similar to that in other parts of Nigeria and the developing world. Neonatal eye screening may be helpful in identifying the disease in its earliest form. More research into genetic studies are recommended.

 

Keywords: retinoblastoma, presentation, neonatal eye screening, leukocoria.

 

 

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