Abstract 11.2.7



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The Epidemiology of Congenital Primary Glaucoma: The Calabar Experience.


R. Duke1, E. Koofreh2 and A. Umoyen2

1Department of Ophthalmology, University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, Calabar, Cross River State

2Department of Genetics and Biotechnology, University of Calabar, Faulty of Biologic Sciences.


Abstract: Glaucoma is a major cause of irreversible blindness all over the world. It is also a major cause of irreversible blindness in children. There is paucity of documented research on the prevalence of glaucoma in children in our environment. This hospital based research was designed to determine the prevalence and subtypes of congenital primary open glaucomas, the demographic characteristics of children seen in the University of Calabar teaching Hospital (UCTH); as well as investigate the family history of children who have the condition. Medicals records of old and new patients with glaucoma who presented to the Ophthalmology clinic of the hospital from April 2003 to March 2012 were reviewed. Out of a total of 2148 glaucoma patients seen during the period, 210(10%) had pediatric glaucoma over all, while 121(6%) cases were of congenital primary glaucoma patients of the general glaucoma population. Males accounted for 76(63%) and females 45(37%) with a sex ratio of 2:3 (male: female ratio). The disease was bilateral in 72(60%) and unilateral in 49(41%) cases for either right (26%) or left eye (15%). Regarding tribe, 48(40%) of children were from Ejagham in Cross River States and the remaining 73(60%) were from other tribes. Further, 27 (22%) patients were blind at diagnosis by the ophthalmologists. Additionally, about 36 (30%) children had a positive family history of adult primary open angle glaucoma, 24 (20%) had no idea bout a family history of adult primary open glaucoma or congenital glaucoma, while 61(50%) had no positive family history of the disease. 41(34%) of children were not in any form of school as at the time of presentation to the clinic. Primary congenital open angle glaucoma appears to have a high prevalence in this population. It is a disheartening condition that affects children, causing irreversible blindness at a very early age as well disrupting the education of these children. Early identification of the disease and prompt surgical intervention, treatment of refractive error and amblyopia would prevent blindness in this children and is recommended. This baseline studies are important in the understanding of genetic aspect of the disease.


Keywords: Glaucoma, Congenital Prevalence, Subtypes.


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