Abstract 6.  (1)10



The Ecology of Malaria Vectors and Risk Factors of Malaria Parasitaemia in Calabar, Nigeria



A. A. A. Alaribe1, G. C. Ejezie1, E. N.U. Ezedinachi2.


1 Department of Medical Microbiology/Parasitology

2 Department of Medicine, University of Calabar


Abstract: A longitudinal malaria study was carried out in the rural rain forest ecological zone of Ekemkpon in Cross River State of Nigeria in 1997 to 1998. The survey highlighted various factors that interplay with malaria transmission dynamics. Mosquito larvae were collected from different breeding sites. The adult wee also collected indoors using spread sheets catch techniques. The environmental conditions were evaluated using pH meter and thermometer to determine the hydrogen ion concentration of the habitat and the temperature of the water respectively. Presence of other flora and fauna were observed. The malaria status of the community was also determined through blood film enumeration of parasites in Giemsa stained slides. The results show that Anopheles mosquitoes larvae thrived best in clean water with les organic matter and less predators like tadpoles, snails and beetles. Temperature change of 260c 320c appeared to support the Anopheline larvae, as a good number of them were collected in environment within that range while presence of green algae affected the number of larvae in a particular collection. Anopheles gambiae S. S. and Anopheles arabiensis were the most prominently identified species of Anopheles with Anopheles gambiae predominating. Malaria transmission had a prevalence of 57.9% while sporozoite rate of 9.6% was reported. Human infectivity rate of 259 infective bites per person per annum was recorded showing clear evidence of persistent high transmission in the area of study.

Key words: Malaria, Vectors, Ecology, Entomological Inoculation Rate, Sporozsoite Rate.


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